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Albert Claude

Albert ClaudeBorn: 23-Aug-1899
Birthplace: Longlier, Belgium
Died: 22-May-1983
Location of death: Brussels, Belgium
Cause of death: Natural Causes

Gender: Male
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Scientist, Doctor

Nationality: Belgium
Executive summary: Microstructure of the cell

Military service: British Intelligence Service (WWI)

Albert Claude laid the groundwork for modern cell biology, with his 1945 publication of the first diagram of cell structure. He was born and buried in Belgium, but also obtained dual citizenship in America. In World War I, while in his late teens, Claude served with British Intelligence, and was twice imprisoned. He was awarded the Inter-Allied Medal for his work, and after the war, though he lacked a high school diploma, he was admitted at the University of Liège under a special program designed for war veterans.

After obtaining his medical degree, he used mechanisms from meat grinders and a sieve to construct a crude but high-speed centrifuge, and pioneered ultracentrifugation, a technique for breaking and spinning infected cells to isolate their agents. Prior to Claude's research, cell interiors were generally thought to be an chaotic mass of substances, but his research showed that cell interiors are actually a well-organized area. He discovered the endoplasmic reticulum (derived from the Latin word for "fishnet", this is a membranous network within cells), and he was among the first scientists to use an electron microscope for cellular study. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1974. His $125,000 Nobel payment was shared with Christian de Duve and Claude's star pupil, George E. Palade.

Father: Florentin Joseph Claude (b. circa 1856)
Mother: Marie-Glaudice Watriquant Claude (b. circa 1854, m. 1887, d. 1906 breast cancer)

    High School: (dropped out)
    Medical School: MD, University of Liège (1928)
    Scholar: Institute for Cancer Research, Berlin (1928-29)
    Scholar: Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Dahlem (1929)
    Teacher: Rockefeller University (1929-72)
    Professor: Medicine, University of Brussels (1935-69)
    Administrator: Director of Cellular Biology and Cancer Research, University of Louvain
    Administrator: Director of Jules Bordet Institute, University of Brussels (1949-70)

    Nobel Prize for Medicine 1974 (with Christian de Duve and George E. Palade)
    French Academy of Sciences
    Naturalized US Citizen 1941

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