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Herbert Kroemer

Herbert KroemerBorn: 25-Aug-1928
Birthplace: Weimar, Germany

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Physicist

Nationality: Germany
Executive summary: Pioneer in laser technology

German physicist Herbert Kroemer studied the physics of semiconductors and the technology of semiconductor devices. His best known work includes a 1957 paper proposing heterostructure (made from several dissimilar materials and/or with unequal band gaps) bipolar transistors, and a 1963 study which showed that, theoretically, a heterostructure transistor is superior to transistors made of only one kind of material. His work, augmented by the independent but related research and experiments of Zhores I. Alferov and Jack S. Kilby, has allowed the development of numerous new technologies, including bar-code readers, fiber-optics, laser pointers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), satellite and wireless communications, and semiconductor lasers. With Alferov and Kilby, Kroemer shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Physics.

He has also studied hot electron effects in the transistor, gallium arsenide Gunn diodes, molecular beam expitaxy, microwave device problems, negative-refraction effects in electromagnetic wave propagation, the physics of nanostructures, and superconducting niobium electrodes.

Father: (gov't bureucrat)
Mother: (housewife)
Wife: Marie Louise Kroemer (m., five children)

    University: University of Jena (attended 1947-48)
    University: PhD Theoretical Physics, University of Göttingen (1952)
    Teacher: Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder (1968-76)
    Professor: University of California at Santa Barbara (1976-)

    EDS J.J. Ebers Award 1973
    Heinrich Welker Medal 1982
    IEEE Jack Morton Award 1986
    EGU Alexander von Humboldt Medal 1994
    Nobel Prize for Physics 2000 (with Zhores I. Alferov and Jack S. Kilby)
    Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 2001
    IEEE Medal of Honor 2002
    Varian Research Physicist (1959-66)
    RCA Research Physicist (1954-59)
    German Postal Service Semiconductor Research (1952-54)
    Siemens College work (1947-48)
    American Physical Society Foreign Member
    Electron Devices Society
    IEEE 1970
    National Academy of Engineering Foreign Associate, 1997
    National Academy of Sciences Foreign Associate, 2003
    German Ancestry
    Asteroid Namesake 24751 Kroemer

Author of books:
Thermal Physics (1980, with Charles Kittel)
Quantum Mechanics for Engineering, Materials Science, and Applied Physics (1994)
Selected Works of Professor Herbert Kroemer (2008)

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