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August Krogh

August KroghAKA Schack August Steenberg Krogh

Born: 15-Nov-1874
Birthplace: Grenaa, Denmark
Died: 13-Sep-1949
Location of death: Copenhagen, Denmark
Cause of death: unspecified

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Scientist

Nationality: Denmark
Executive summary: Discovered how capillaries regulate oxygen

August Krogh's research established that blood flow is regulated through capillaries that open and close according to the tissue's need for oxygen. For this, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1920. He also invented an ergometer (for measuring muscle power) and a climate chamber, and helped establish the importance of radioactive isotopes in biological research.

His wife, Marie Krogh, was one of Denmark's first female physicians and an accomplished scientist, and they were frequent collaborators and co-authors on several scientific papers. She was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in 1921, a disease which at the time could only be treated with a specialized diet, usually to little effect. They traveled to Toronto and met with John Macleod, who, with his collaborator Frederick G. Banting, had just isolated insulin. After obtaining Macleod's permission, the Kroghs returned to Copenhagen and set up an insulin manufacturing facility. Within months, Marie Krogh was among thousands of Danish diabetics using insulin, and the disease was not a factor in her death decades later. The insulin factory is now the pharmaceutical giant Novo Nordisk, and August Krogh nominated Macleod and Banting for the Nobel Prize they shared in 1923.

Father: Viggo Krogh (shipbuilder-beermaker)
Mother: Marie Drechmann Krogh (homemaker)
Wife: Marie Jørgensen Krogh (physician-scientist, m. 1905, d. 1943 breast cancer)
Daughter: Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (author-physiologist, b. 1918)

    High School: Cathedral School of Århus, Århus, Denmark (1893)
    University: BA Zoology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1897)
    University: MS Zoology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1899)
    University: PhD Zoology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1903)
    Teacher: Zoophysiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1908-16)
    Professor: Zoophysiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (1916-45)

    Royal Society
    Nobel Prize for Medicine 1920
    Danish Ancestry
    Gypsy Ancestry Maternal

Author of books:
The Respiratory Exchange of Animals and Man (1916, research)
The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries (1922, research)
A text-book of human physiology for college students (1932, textbook)
Osmotic Regulation in Aquatic Animals (1939, research)
The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms (1941, research)

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