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Pope Celestine III

AKA Giacinto Bobon

Born: c. 1106
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Died: 8-Jan-1198
Location of death: Rome, Italy
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Basilica di San Giovanni, Rome, Italy

Gender: Male
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Religion

Nationality: Italy
Executive summary: Roman Catholic Pope, 1191-98

Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobon, Roman Catholic Pope from 1191 to 1198, was cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin as early as 1144, and had reached the age of eighty-five when chosen on the 30th of March 1191 to succeed Pope Clement III. The first pope of the house of the Orsini, his policy was marked by mildness and indecision. Henry VI of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany. Celestine did not dare so much as to threaten him with excommunication. It was Celestine's purpose to lay England under the interdict; but Prince John and the barons still refused to recognize the papal legate, the bishop of Ely. King Richard the Lionheart had been set free before the dilatory pope put Leopold of Austria under the ban. In his last sickness Celestine wished to resign his office, but the cardinals protested. Death released him from his perplexities on the 8th of January 1198.

    Roman Catholic Pope 30-Mar-1191 to 8-Jan-1198
    Roman Catholic Cardinal
    Declared Holy War against pagans in Northern Europe (1193)
    Religious Mission: Papal Crusade

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